Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is method of sharing a communication channel in which the total time available in the channel is divided between several users and each user of the channel is allocated a time slice during which he may transmit a message. The capacity is fully utilized by interleaving a number of data streams belonging to different users into one data stream.
There are two type of TDM
In Synchronous TDM, each device is given same time slot to transmit the data over the link, irrespective of the fact that the device has only data or not. Each device place its data onto the link when its time slot arrives. If any device does not have data to send then its time slot remains empty.
If there are 'n' sending devices, there will be 'n' slots in frame that is one slot for each device.
In Asynchronous TDM time slots are not fixed that is the slots are flexible. In this system, slots are nor predefined, the slots are allocated to any of the device that has data to send.The multiplexer scans the various input lines, accepts the data from the lines that have data to send, fills the frame and then sends the frame across the link. If there are not enough data to fill all the slots in a frame, then the frames are transmitted partially filled.
If there are 'n' sending devices,then the frame contains not more than 'm' slots, where 'm' less than 'n'.
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