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Memory that belongs to a process is implicitly protected by its private virtual address space. In addition, Windows provides memory protection by using the virtual memory hardware. The implementation of this protection varies with the processor, for example, code pages in the address space of a process can be marked read-only and protected from modification by user-mode threads.

Copy-on-Write Protection

Copy-on-write protection is an optimization that allows multiple processes to map their virtual address spaces such that they share a physical page until one of the processes modifies the page. This is part of a technique called lazy evaluation, which allows the system to conserve physical memory and time by not performing an operation until absolutely necessary.

For example, suppose two processes load pages from the same DLL into their virtual memory spaces. These virtual memory pages are mapped to the same physical memory pages for both processes. As long as neither process writes to these pages, they can map to and share, the same physical pages, as shown in the following diagram.

If Process 1 writes to one of these pages, the contents of the physical page are copied to another physical page and the virtual memory map is updated for Process 1. Both processes now have their own instance of the page in physical memory. Therefore, it is not possible for one process to write to a shared physical page and for the other process to see the changes.

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