ETHERNET FRAME FORMAT

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Field Name
Size (bytes)
Description
Preamble
7
This is a stream of bits used to allow the transmitter and reciever to synchronize their communication. The preamble is an alternating pattern of binary 56 ones and zeroes.
Start Frame Delimiter
1
This is always 10101011 and is used to indicate the beginning of the frame information.
Destination Address
6
It contain the physical address (MAC Address) of the receiver.
Source Address
6
It contain the physical address (MAC Address) of the sender.
Length of Data Field
2
It indicates the number of bytes present in "Data" field.
Data
0 To 1454
The data is inserted here. This is where the IP header and data is placed if you are running IP over Ethernet.
Payload
46
This field size can be 0 to 46 bytes long. This is required if, the data size is less than 46 bytes.
Frame Checksum
4
This field contains the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) which is calculated using a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC). The FCS allows Ethernet to detect errors in the Ethernet frame and reject the frame if it appears damaged.

Minimum frame length = 64 bytes
Maximum frame length = 1518 bytes
Minimum length or lower limit for frame length is defined for normal operation of CSMA/CD.
An ethernet frame has a minimum size because anything that is shorter than the 64 byte minimum is interpreted by receiving stations as a collision.
A transmitting station will begin transmission when it can sense that there is no other transmitting stations (carrier sense). The transmitting station will not know of a collision in transmission until the collision is detected by another receiving station. This receiving station will then transmit a jam sequence and the transmitting station will receive this and break off transmission before it has actually transmitted the first 64 bytes of its ethernet packet.
This allows all receiving stations to interpret any transmission that is less than 64 bytes as a collision, and thus ignore it.



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