DATA ANOMALIES

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Normalization is the process of splitting relations into well structured relations that allow users to insert, delete and update tuples without introducing database inconsistencies. Without normalization many problems can occur when trying to load an integrated conceptual model into the DBMS. These problems arise from relations that are generated directly from user views are called anomalies. There are three type of anomalies : update, delete and insert anomalies.

Product_idProduct_nameSupplier_idSupplier_name
P-101
Motherboard
S-45
Intel
P-405
Processor
S-45
Intel
P-390
RAM
S-50
Kingston
P-650
Harddisk
S-10
Seagate
P-800
Monitor
S-80
Samsung

Update Anomalies - An update anomaly exists when one or more instances of duplicated data is updated but not all.
For example - Cosider "ASUS" is the new supplier respect to the supplier id "S-45". You need to update all tuples which contain the supplier id "S-45"

Delete Anomalies - A delete anomalies exists when certain attributes are lost because of the deletion of other attributes.
For example - If we delete the tuple which contain the product id "P-800", we lost all information about the supplier id "S-80". Because in this table it is the only one tuple which contain all information about this supplier id.

Insert Anomalies - An insert anomaly occurs when certain attributes cannot be inserted into the database without the presence of other attributes.
For example - We can not add any product unless we have atlast one supplier.



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